This trading town, which once thronged with people of many nationalities, has a rich architectural past. The town is one of the centres of Palots ethnicity; their history is displayed in an open-air museum.
In the early 15th century the Jewish religious community was established here, one of the first in Hungary. From the 1720's, gradually Greek, Serbian and German traders and manufacturers settled alongside the population of Hungarian and Slovakian descent.
Among other places, their memory is preserved in the Jewish cemetery which is under heritage protection. Grave memorials can be found there from between the early 18th century until the 20th century.
Balassagyarmat's most prominent heritage buildings are the old Classical county hall and the church of the Serbian settlers, built in 1911.